Helgoland (German: Helgoland; Helgolandic: deät Lun) is a small German archipelago in the North Sea.
Formerly a Danish and British possession, the islands (population 1,650) are located in the Helgoland Bight - part of the German Bight - in the southeastern corner of the North Sea. They are the only German islands not in the immediate vicinity of the mainland and are approximately two hours' sailing time from Cuxhaven at the mouth of the River Elbe.
In addition to German, the local population, who are ethnic Frisians, speak the Heligolandic dialect of the North Frisian language called Halunder.
Helgoland was formerly called Heyligeland, or "holy land," possibly due to the island's long association with the god Forseti.
Helgoland sports a very healthy offshore climate, being almost free of pollen and thus ideal for allergics. Since there is no land mass in the vicinity that could cool down too much in the winter time, it hardly gets colder than -5 °C (23 °F) in any year. At times, winter temperatures can be higher than in Hamburg by up to 10 °C (18 °F) because cold winds from Russia are weakened. While spring tends to be comparatively cool, autumn on Helgoland is often longer and warmer than on the mainland and statistically, the climate generally is sunnier.
Due to the mild climate, figs have been grown on the island since the 1920s - there still is an old mulberry tree in the Upper Town.